This is the gap between two neurons, where the nerve impulse is transmitted by a chemical neurotransmitter, such as acetylcholine. Molecules of the neurotransmitter are released into the synapse by the end bulb (axon terminal) of the presynaptic neuron to bind to receptors on the surface of the postsynaptic neuron on the far side of the synapse. The neurotransmitter is then reabsorbed into the presynaptic neuron in a process known as "transport," or "reuptake."
   The term "synapse" was coined by London neurophysiologist Charles Scott Sherrington (1857–1952) in 1897 in an article in Michael Foster’s (1836–1907) Text-Book of Physiology; Sherrington hypothesized that a functional connection must exist between nerve cells, one that he initially called a "synapsis" (from the Greek "to clasp"), but that quickly morphed into synapse. Evidence for the chemical transmission of the nerve impulse was clinched by the Graz professor of pharmacology Otto Loewi (1873–1961) in 1921 in an epochal article on "vagus material" (Vagusstoff ) that he wrote in Pflügers Archive for Physiology (Pflügers Archiv für die gesamte Physiologie), "On Humoral Transmission as the Mechanism of the Heart Nerves" (Über humorale Übertragbarkeit der Herznervenwirkung"). Loewi later conceded that the "Vagusstoff" must be acetylcholine, the physiological action of which had been discovered by his friend, the London physiologist Henry Hallett Dale (1875–1961), and discussed in 1914 in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. For his achievement, Loewi won a Nobel Prize in 1936.

Edward Shorter. 2014.

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  • synapse — [ sinaps ] n. f. • 1897; angl. synapsis; gr. sunapsis « liaison; point de jonction » 1 ♦ Anat. Région de contact de deux neurones. Synapse neuromusculaire : contact entre un neurone et le muscle qu il innerve. 2 ♦ (1924; synapsis 1904) Biol.… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • synapse — junction between two nerve cells, 1899, from Gk. synapsis conjunction, from synaptein to clasp, from syn together + haptein to fasten. Related to APSE (Cf. apse). Introduced by English physiologist Sir Michael Foster (1836 1907) at the suggestion …   Etymology dictionary

  • synapse —  Synapse  Синапс   Конъюгация хромосом, попарное временное сближение гомологичных хромосом, во время которого между ними может произойти обмен гомологичными участками. На этой стадии хромосомы под влиянием разных воздействий легко сжимаются в… …   Толковый англо-русский словарь по нанотехнологии. - М.

  • synapse — ► NOUN ▪ a gap between two nerve cells, across which impulses are conducted through the agency of a neurotransmitter. DERIVATIVES synaptic adjective. ORIGIN Greek sunapsis, from sun together + hapsis joining …   English terms dictionary

  • synapse — [sin′aps΄, si naps′] n. [ModL synapsis: see SYNAPSIS] the minute space between a nerve cell and another nerve cell, a muscle cell, etc., through which nerve impulses are transmitted from one to the other …   English World dictionary

  • Synapse — Pour les articles homonymes, voir synapse (homonymie). Synapse entre deux neurones La synapse (du grec. syn = ensemble; haptein = toucher, saisir; c est à dire connexi …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Synapse — Synapsen (Einzahl die Synapse, von gr. σύν, syn = zusammen, ἅπτειν, haptein = ergreifen, fassen, tasten) sind Kontaktstellen zwischen Nervenzellen und anderen Zellen (wie Sinnes , Muskel oder Drüsenzellen) oder zwischen Nervenzellen untereinander …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • synapse — A connection between excitable cells, by which an excitation is conveyed from one to the other. (1) Chemical synapse: one in which an action potential causes the exocytosis of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic cell, which diffuses across the… …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • Synapse — The point of connection usually between two nerve cells. Specifically, a synapse is a specialized junction at which a nerve cell (a neuron) communicates with a target cell. The neuron releases a chemical transmitter (a neurotransmitter) that… …   Medical dictionary

  • Synapse — ◆ Syn|ạp|se 〈f. 19; Biochem.〉 Kontaktstelle der Neuronen [<grch. synapsis „eng verbunden“] ◆ Die Buchstabenfolge syn|a... bzw. syn|ä... kann in Fremdwörtern auch sy|na... bzw. sy|nä... getrennt werden. * * * Sy|n|ạp|se, die; , n [griech.… …   Universal-Lexikon

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